Numbers on Savings

1.FURNACE SYSTEMS

 

Waste Heat Recycling:

 

  • The hot chimney gas can be recycled by using recuperators, regenerative burners, etc... and it can be used for the preliminary heating of the burning air.

 

  • It is possible to use this recycled heat for cooking, heating, drying, etc... purposes.

 

  • It is also possible to generate hot water using an economizer.

 

  • Energy savings up to 45% can be made with the recycling of the waste heat.

 

Studies for increasing burning efficiency (Fuel-Air Mixture setting):

 

  • 14% efficiency can be obtained by optimizing the fuel-air mixture.

 

Betterment studies in burner systems or using efficient burners:

 

  • As the mixture of fuel-air mixture burns inside the burner, methods for increasing burning efficiency are valid.

 

Betterment studies for chimney systems:

 

  • Important information is obtained about energy efficiency by following up components such as moisture, temperature, CO2, O2 and CO ratio.

 

  • Use of alternative fuel or waste fuel

 

  • By burning solid fuels (garbage, waste mud, etc...) fuel savings can be attained at facilities that have furnaces operating at very high temperatures (around 1000°C).

 

Isolation of the furnace surface and hot lines:

 

  • Losses on furnace surface can reach up to 10%. All surfaces with temperatures rising up to 60°C should be isolated.

 

  • Design changes, modernization or furnace replacement for attaining energy efficiency.

 

  • The total thermal efficiency will reach 90% with the implementation of all said methods.

 

2.BOILER SYSTEMS

 

Waste Heat Recycling (Chimney gas heat):

 

  • If the temperature of the waste chimney gas is above 130°C, the recuperator can then be used for the preliminary heating of the air that will enter the boiler, or for water heating using an economizer.

 

  • Fuel savings between 3 - 20% can be attained.

 

Blow-Off Recycling:

 

  • From the blow-off that should be continuously within the boiler, it is possible to make savings up to 2.5% using the same waste heat recycling methods.

 

Condensate recycling and obtaining flash steam:

 

  • Fuel savings up to 14%.

 

For Detailed Information see:

 

  • Steam Systems

 

Isolation of the boiler surface and hot lines:

 

  • It is around 1% in modern boilers. It may reach up to 10% in old boilers.

 

Studies for ameliorating the burning conditions of fuels:

 

  • Each 28°C increase in the air entering the boiler will increase efficiency by 1%.

 

  • Therefore, a fuel savings between 13-51% can be attained.

 

  • Use of alternative fuel or waste fuel

 

  • See. Furnace Systems

 

Studies for increasing burning efficiency:

 

  • Savings up to 20% can be attained by correctly setting the air-fuel mixture.

 

Water Preparation Systems:

 

  • The quality of the boiler’s feeding water has a direct impact on efficiency.

 

  • High ratio of dissolved minerals increases incrustation within the boiler.

 

  • Incrustation and calcification in boiler pipes can cause heat losses up to 60%.

 

  • In addition, blow-off losses will also increase as more water will be kept inside the boiler.

 

  • It increases costs due to cleaning, maintenance and breakdowns.

 

Betterment studies for chimney systems

 

See. Furnace Systems

 

Design changes, modernization or boiler replacement for attaining energy efficiency.

 

Both hot water and electricity will be produced with total 90% efficiency through cogeneration systems.

 

3.STEAM SYSTEMS

 

Control of the steam lines, changing the lines not designed appropriately and preventing leakages.

 

Leakages and thermal losses in steam transmission systems are around 5-7%.

 

Condensate recycling and obtaining flash steam:

 

After it is used, the produced steam cools down and turns into liquid.

 

The generated hot condensate vaporizes as soon as it contacts the atmosphere. This is called flash steam.

 

Flash steam and condensate thermal losses may amount to 20% in total.

 

The existing waste heat can be incorporated in the recycling system or a separate system can be erected.

 

Isolation of the steam lines and condensate lines:

 

Losses are 80-85% less in isolated pipes.

 

The maintenance & controlling of the steam traps and replacement of the malfunctioning ones.

 

The malfunctioning steam traps will increase leakages as they will leak steam.

 

According to the survey by EIE, 10% of boilers in the industry malfunction.

 

Use of Appropriate Steam Boilers

 

The steam boilers used should conform to the steam pressure.

 

4.DRYING SYSTEMS

 

Waste Heat Recycling:

 

See. Furnace Systems

 

Utilizing the moisture of the chimney gas

Erecting a moisture control system in the exhaust air ad the dried material

Betterment studies in the hot drying water preparation system

Betterment in burner systems or using efficient burners:

 

See. Furnace Systems

 

5.COOLING SYSTEMS

 

Isolation of the cooling lines:

 

In an isolated fan-coil, energy losses are prevented by approximately 70-80%.

 

Highly efficient engine application in the fans and pumps of the cooling systems:

 

EFF3(IE2) class engines are 2-6% more efficient than EFF1 class engines.

 

Considering that approximately 90% of an engine’s total cost represents energy throughout its lifetime, the amount of savings is quite high.

 

Studies that will increase efficiency in cold storage depots.

 

Energy savings up to 70% can be attained in cold storage depots through smart control systems.

 

Studies for preventing factors that lead to falls in temperature transmission in cooling systems

 

Dirtiness in the channels of cooling systems lead to energy losses between 11-44%.

 

Waste Heat Recycling (Exhaust Heat, Condenser Heat):

 

The waste heat can be used for heating air or water in another system.

 

Savings are made in terms of hot water, heating and steam costs.

 

The waste heat can also be used for cooling purposes through absorption cooling.

 

Trigeneration Systems:

 

Electricity hot water and/or cooling requirements can be met by a single energy source (usually natural gas). Upmost level efficiency is thus attained.

 

6.HEATING, VENTILATION, CLIMATIZATION (HVAC)

 

Temperature and moisture control system studies in area where climatization is performed.

Control of the cooling lines and changing the lines that are not designed appropriately.

Studies to perform recycling from the waste heat of the exhaust air.

Soil and/or water based heat pump applications:

 

It provides savings up to 25% in cooling and 75% in heating.

 

Solar collector applications for utilizing the solar energy:

 

It can meet the entire hot water requirements during the summer months.

 

7.COOLING TOWER SYSTEMS

 

Highly efficient engine application in the fans and pumps of the cooling towers:

 

EFF3 class engines are 2-6% more efficient than EFF1 class engines.

 

Considering that approximately 90% of an engine’s total cost represents energy throughout its lifetime, the amount of savings is quite high.

 

Variable speeder (DHS) application in the fans and pumps of the cooling towers:

 

Energy savings up to 50%

 

Modernization of the cooling towers

 

Modern cooling towers increase the performance of their connected coolers by 20%.

 

Isolating of the lines.

 

8.FAN SYSTEMS

 

Variable speeder (DHS) application in fans:

 

Average electricity savings up to 52% can be attained.

 

Highly efficient engine application in fans:

 

EFF3 class engines are 2-6% more efficient than EFF1 class engines.

 

Studies for appropriate air control and flow rate adjustment system:

 

With the selection of wings/rotor type that conforms to the system & process, an approximate flow rate increase up to 20% can be attained at the same engine power.

 

Studies for preventing losses and leakages in fans.

 

Standard belt causes efficiency losses between 2-8%. A V-Connected belt should be used.

 

Fan applications with high efficiency:

 

Belt losses can be reduced to zero with the direct drive technique.

 

9.PRESSURIZED AIR SYSTEMS

 

Control of the pressurized air lines and changing the pressurized air lines that are not designed appropriately.

 

Variable speeder (DHS) or soft starter application in Compressors, the control system renewals of which are up to 7%.

 

10% energy saving through DHS use.

 

Selection of appropriate compressors:

 

Renewal of the compressors provides savings up to 6%

 

Pneumatic equipment optimization provides savings up to 6%

 

Studies for preventing losses and leakages:

 

Reducing air leakages provides savings up to 42%,

 

And reducing pressure losses provides savings up to 4%.

 

Rending air driers and air tanks efficient:

 

Cleansing the air of moisture provides an efficiency increase around 1%.

 

It reduces the condensate occurring in the air tanks.

 

A correct design for the compressor room and compressor placement:

 

Each 5°C reduction in the incoming air provides 2% energy savings.

 

Utilizing the compressor waste heat (exhaust and cooling systems):

 

It can be used for the heating of waste water or air. Recycling up to 90% can be attained.

 

10.PUMP SYSTEMS

 

Highly efficient pump applications

 

20% savings with low friction pipe.

 

Total energy savings up to 70% is possible via DHS, high-efficient engine, pump and coupling.

 

Measures for increasing energy efficiency in pumps, which have been chosen in excessive capacities:

 

Savings close to those made with DHS can be made with a cost close to 10:1 by performing flowrate reduction through lathing the pump impellers.

 

11.ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

 

Using efficient transformers:

 

Transformers have high efficiency as they do not possess any rotating parts (~98%). However, the attainable efficiency increase is around 1-2% in old transformers as they will yield more losses.

 

Studies for increasing efficiency to reduce technical losses in transmission and distribution lines:

 

Thermal losses can be reduced around 2-3% through optimum conductive profiles and voltage levels.

 

Modernization or renewal of electric systems

 

Losses and leakages can be prevented via smart network applications.

 

Sources of renewal energy can be utilized at further levels.

 

Harmonic filter and compensation studies aiming at the prevention of harmonics occurring in electric systems:

 

Many devices such as DHS, discharge lamps, LED drivers, electronic ballasts, etc... create harmonics. The harmonic production of such components should be considered when they are purchased.

 

Harmonics have many cost-increasing effects ranging from increase in losses and damage in equipment. For this reason, their filtering is a must.

 

Harmonics can highly be eliminated by passive filters correctly selected and placed. Use of active filters can also be necessary.

 

Elimination of harmonics has a positive effect on the power factor and the performance of compensation systems. Increases in costs due to penalties are avoided.

 

12.ENGINE SYSTEMS

 

Selection of engines in conformant capacities with the load:

 

Electric engines most efficiently operate at 85-90% load. Furthermore, power factors considerably decrease below this value.

 

Replacement of inefficient engines with efficient ones.

 

See. Cooling Systems

 

Replacing the transmission components, which are located between the engine and the load and which have low efficiency, with highly efficient ones.

 

Friction losses decrease between 3-5%.

 

Variable speeder (DHS) or soft starter application in engines

 

With DHS, the engine speed and therefore its power are adjusted according to requirements.

 

At the same time, drawing high currents at takeoff is prevented (Soft Start).

 

See. Fan Systems, Pump Systems, Cooling Systems

 

13.ILLUMINATION SYSTEMS

 

Selection of armatures with high energy efficiency and conforming to the area of use:

 

Induction lamps offer consuming up to 40% less energy compared to discharge lamps.

 

New reflectors are 20% more efficient.

 

Sodium vapor lamp offers 60-70% more savings compared to mercury vapor lamps during exterior illumination.

 

Electronic ballast use in fluorescent lamps:

 

Electric savings between 25-40% can be attained.

 

Illumination control system applications (Dimmer, Motion Sensors, Photocell, Time Clocks, etc...):

 

These can offer average savings of 30%.

 

Amount of savings vary according to the area of use.

 

Opening illumination windows at locations such as roofs, walls, etc... for maximizing daylight utilization can reduce illumination costs by 30%.

 

LED illumination system applications in appropriate fields:

 

15-40% more efficient compare to discharge lamps

 

More expensive initially but with has a longer lifetime

 

Seen as the future’s illumination type